Scala is a functional programming language where it contains both functions as first-class values and methods and has both similarities and dissimilarities. It extends LinearSeq trait. After this short introduction I want to focus on particular Scala collection functions, which I count the most useful and amazing in everyday work. Scala usesTimSort, which is a hybrid of Merge Sort and Insertion Sort. A function can be defined inside a function known as nested functions which is supported in Scala unlike in Java. get) // this is unsafe, could throw a null pointer exception, do not use this. when using parameterized function you must mention type of parameters explicitly otherwise compiler throws an error and your code fails to compile. Active today. Scala List class examples: range, fill, tabulate, appending, foreach, more ... show more info on classes/objects in repl, parallel collections, .par, and performance, Scala List class methods, examples, and syntax page, Scala List class: methods, examples, and syntax, Scala Array class: methods, examples, and syntax, Scala Seq class: methods, examples, and syntax, Scala IndexedSeq class: methods, examples, and syntax, Methods on the Scala collections classes, organized by category, The Rocky Mountains, Longmont, Colorado, December 31, 2020, Rocky Mountain National Park, Jan. 3, 2018, 12,000 feet up in Rocky Mountain National Park (Estes Park area), Two moose in Rocky Mountain National Park. Now let's add a simple "if" clause to the for expression to print only the elements we want to print: If you already know about the for expression, you know that you can add multiple if clauses, and much more functionality. It provides rich set of built-in functions and allows you to create user defined functions also. foldLeft ( 0 ) { count } Scala is a functional programming language where it contains both functions as first-class values and methods and has both similarities and dissimilarities. Scala List. In the given solution for the problem, the anonymous function can be written more explicitly like def count [ A ]( c : Int , d : A ) : Int = { c + 1 } def length [ A ]( l : List [ A ]) : Int = l . The function in Scala is a complete object which can be assigned to a variable whereas a method in Scala is a part of class having name, signature, bytecode and annotations. You can create a Scala List object in several different way. This means that, like any other value, a function can be passed as a parameter and returned as a result. Let’s look at some common functions on Options: println (myFirstOption. Even though double is defined as a method, Scala lets you treat it as a function.. Functional languages treat functions as first-class values. Here's a simple example showing how to use the foreach function to print every item in a List: This next example shows a way to sum all the elements in a list using the foreach method: The Scala for expression is not specific to lists, but is an extremely powerful way to operate on lists. Non-Parameterized functions: In this type of function we do not pass any parameters to function. This means that, like any other value, a functioncan be passed as a parameter and returned as a result. Here are definitions for these terms: A Scala method is first-order if it does not take any functions as arguments. Note that some function/parameter names contain whitespaces. When we want to execute a group of statements to perform a task a hundred times, we don’t type them a hundred times. In the meantime, here's a short list of the many other Scala List methods I don't have examples for at this time: Again, I'll try to add examples of these List methods over time. Scala functions don?t use return statement. Parameterized functions: In this type of function we pass the list of parameters. In summary, Spark SQL function collect_list () and collect_set () aggregates the data into a list and returns an ArrayType. will call List(1,2,3).map(x => doubleValue(x)) and gives us a list with values (1, 4… Explain how Scala is both Functional and Object-oriented Programming Language? These Scala functions are the same as any other programming language. Keep in mind the return type and parameter list or signature of the function while working with them. In this tutorial, I'll share examples of the most common List operations (methods). Mail us on hr@javatpoint.com, to get more information about given services. The Scala List class — scala.List — holds a sequenced, linear list of items. By default, all the functions in Scala are strict.If we need to define a non-strictness argument we have to add arrow => immediately before their type. Motivation The following examples show how to use org.apache.spark.sql.functions.lit.These examples are extracted from open source projects. Anonymous functions allows developers to just provide the function logic without the need to associate it with a name. If you don't use it, your function will not return anything and will work like subroutine. High Order Functions, let us first look on what high ordered functions are. If you need to familiarize your self with Spark basics, do read our blog post on Spark SQL Functions – Listed by Category and Spark Scala examples. In this example, this code is an anonymous function: This is a shorthand way of saying, “Multiply an element by 2.” Once you’re comfortable with Scala, this is a common way to write anonymous functions, but if you prefer, you can also write them using longer form… Function Definitions. Function name can have characters like ++,+,-,– etc. It is a class for immutable linked lists. JavaTpoint offers too many high quality services. There is also unlifting, which is the inverse process to lifting.. We can pass a function as an argument of other function. static Column: shiftLeft(Column e, int numBits) Shift the given value numBits left. The Scala List class holds a sequenced, linear list of items. ", (Again, I recall this approach and syntax from using Lisp many years ago.). Please mail your requirement at hr@javatpoint.com. The compiler will box the function code we provide into the appropriate object automatically. All operations on lists can be expressed in terms of the following three methods. JavaTpoint offers college campus training on Core Java, Advance Java, .Net, Android, Hadoop, PHP, Web Technology and Python. So, let’s start learning Scala Lists. This article contains Scala user-defined function (UDF) examples. the object cannot be modified. You can create function by using def keyword. I could easily write an entire tutorial on the Scala for comprehension, so to keep this tutorial short, I'll stop here for now. Under the hood, the Scala compiler implements this specific example as an instance of the Function2 trait. foldLeft ( 0 ) { count } This is possible because functions are first-class value in scala. You can vote up the ones you like or vote down the ones you don't like, and go to the original project or source file by following the links above each example. For the most part — maybe 98% of the time — the differences between defining a “function” using def or val aren’t important. Below we can see the syntax to define groupBy in scala: groupBy[K](f: (A) ⇒ K): immutable.Map[K, Repr] But as you become a more advanced Scala developer — and as you see the code that some Scala/FP de… More functions for working with lists . Lists represents a linked list whereas arrays are flat. Ask Question Asked today. Functions. Here is signature. Developed by JavaTpoint. It means that functions can be passed as arguments to other functions and functions can return other function. However, they can be invoked directly - without escaping the name. Return type infers by compiler from the last expression or statement present in the function. The sorted function is used to sort the sequence in Scala like (List, Array, Vector, Seq). Overview. We use multiple parameter lists for curried functions. This class is good for last-in-first-out (LIFO), stack-like access patterns. All functions in Scala are special objects of type Function1 or Function2 or FunctionN, where N is the number of input arguments to the function. Anonymous function or lambda can be assigned to a variable and can be passed around. There are times you may want to use one of the relatives of the Scala List class, instead of using the List class itself. Take the following List: val pets = List("cat", "dog", "frog") In Scala, any instance of Seq, Set or Map is also a function. Functions - First Class Citizens. Here are a few map examples. Scala groupBy function takes a predicate as a parameter and based on this it group our elements into a useful key value pair map. Scala (/ ˈ s k ɑː l ɑː / SKAH-lah) is a general-purpose programming language providing support for both object-oriented programming and functional programming.The language has a strong static type system.Designed to be concise, many of Scala's design decisions are aimed to address criticisms of Java. Calculates the SHA-2 family of hash functions of a binary column and returns the value as a hex string. Appending means you are adding an element to the end of the list and it is not an efficient operation. In scala, you can create recursive functions also. Some of these functions aimed to transform collections, rest of them return a particular values after application. I'll add more to this over time, but for now, here are a few links: On a slightly related note, functional programming languages describe functions as being either first-order, or higher-order. Therefore, it's very helpful to know how create lists, merge lists, select items from lists, operate on each element in a list, and so on. scala> val a = List (1, 2, 3, 4) a: List [Int] = List (1, 2, 3, 4) scala> val b = (a :\ 5)(_+_) b: Int = 15 scala> val c = (a :\ 5)((x,y) => x + y) c: Int = 15 B the result type of the binary operator. A great thing about Scala is that it is a functional programming language. And as you’ve seen in map and filter examples in this book, the ability to pass functions as parameters into other functions helps you create code that is concise and still readable. static Column: shiftLeft (Column e, int numBits) Shift the given value numBits left. For example, given a list like this: You can create a new list by doubling each element in ints, like this: This is what that example looks like in the REPL: As that shows, doubledInts is now the list, List(2, 4, 6). Scala Functions for beginners and professionals with examples on oops concepts, constructors, method overloading, this keyword, inheritance, final, collection, string, exception, trait, tuple, multithreading, file handling, case classes and more. Difference between Scala Functions & Methods: Function is a object which can be stored in a variable. val functions are concrete instances of Function0 through Function22. If you don't specify return type of a function, default return type is Unit. The map function is a classic example of a higher order function. Scala List map () method with example. The code can be divided logically into separate functions where each function is assigned a specific task. Introduction to Scala High Order Functions. The for comprehension is not a looping construct, but is a syntactic construct the compiler reduces to map, flatMap, and filter. First, you can merge two Scala lists using the ::: method of the List class: This operation is said to have O(n) speed, where n is the number of elements in the first List. Functions that take other functions as parameters or that return functionsas results are called higher order functions. Higher-order functions are functions that take other functions as parameters. As per the official documentation, Functions are first class objects in Scala, which means that they can -. A function is a callable unit of code that can take a single parameter, a list of parameters, or no parameters at all. Calculates the SHA-2 family of hash functions of a binary column and returns the value as a hex string. By Alvin Alexander. Scala Function Returns Empty List. Scala functions are first class values. Overview. The ability to pass functions around as variables is a distinguishing feature of functional programming languages. Though I’ve explained here with Scala, a similar methods could be used to work Spark SQL array function with PySpark and if time permits I will cover it in the future. What Scala returns is a new function whose parameter list only contains those parameters from the original function that were left blank in their respective order. I have a list of parameters like List(1,2,3,"abc","c") and a set of functions which validates the data present in the list like isNumberEven, isAValidString etc. sorted. First, doubling every item in a List: scala> val x = List(1,2,3) x: List[Int] = List(1, 2, 3) scala> val y = x.map(a => a * 2) y: List[Int] = List(2, 4, 6) Update: For dozens of additional examples, see my Scala List class methods, examples, and syntax page. Both the functions and methods are a block of the reusable code also used to store the repeated code in one place, which makes a function call to performs a particular specific task. Similar to Java, String is immutable in Scala i.e. In functional programming languages, the concept of a list class is very important, and as you can see, this leads to an incredible wealth of methods/functions that are available on the Scala List class. If you use it, function will return value. This tutorial on Scala Partial function will help in learning the different types of functions in Scala, the basics of Scala partial function and different ways to define it while doing Scala programming. This is a guide to Scala Function. The map, flatMap and filter are extremely useful: Output: Scala is a functional programming language. In scala function, you can specify the names of parameters during calling the function. Let’s define a function that doubles each value that is given to it. Basically, you can say … Spark SQL collect_list() and collect_set() functions are used to create an array column on DataFrame by merging rows, typically after group by or window partitions.In this article, I will explain how to use these two functions and learn the differences with examples. Be careful while using recursive function. This object contains a method apply () that can be called to execute our function. In this tutorial, we will learn how to use the take function with examples on collection data structures in Scala.The take function is applicable to both Scala's Mutable and Immutable collection data structures.. It uses default values of parameters. Both the functions and methods are a block of the reusable code also used to store the repeated code in one place, which makes a function call to performs a particular specific task. Functions that take other functions as parameters or that return functions as results are called higher order functions. (Scala-specific) Parses a column containing a JSON string into a StructType or ArrayType of StructTypes with the specified schema. First, doubling every item in a List: Here's a slightly simpler version of that map example, using the Scala wildcard character (_) instead of a fake variable name: Here's an example using a list of strings: A very nice example in the book Beginning Scala demonstrates how to convert a List into something useful in the HTML world, a list of
  • elements using the map function: As you can see, you can rapidly build a lot of functionality in just a little bit of code. Simply put, you can call the map function on your collection, pass it a function, or an… It means that functions can be passed as arguments to other functions and functions can return other function. scala> val lst = List(10,200,300) lst: List[Int] = List(10, 200, 300) scala> 23 +: lst res4: List[Int] = List(23, 10, 200, 300) Append to a Scala List. It maintains order of elements and can contain duplicates elements also. The :: method takes two arguments, a "head", which is a single element, and a "tail", which is a, As you can see, Scala can usually infer the type of a. You can also merge two Scala lists using the List's concat method: A very common way to iterate over Scala lists is with the foreach method. Ans: Some of the Frameworks supported by Scala are as follows: In this tutorial, we’ll have a look at their definitions and usage differences. A function that takes on other functions as a parameter or in the result returns a function are basically known as High Order Functions. There must be a base condition to terminate program safely. I've tried to show at least one example for each important Scala List method, and I'll try to add many more examples as time goes on. def concat[A](l: List[List[A]]): List[A] = foldRight(l, Nil: List[A])(append) Since append takes time proportional to its first argument, and this first argument never grows because of the right-associativity of foldRight, this function is linear in the total length of all lists. We will learn to declare a Scala list, Creating Uniform List, Methods on a Scala list, Operations on a Scala list, Reversing a List in Scala Collections, Defining List using:: Nil, Tabulating a Function, Concatenating Scala list. In summary, you can create a new Scala List with these approaches: You can prepend items to a Scala List using the :: method: According to the Beginning Scala book (and several other sources), prepending items to a list is a "very fast, constant-time, O(1) operation. It’s important to understand that partially applying a function always results in a new function. Scala provides a feature to assign default values to function parameters. def sorted[B >: A](implicit ord: Ordering[B]): Repr . Here is three sorting method of Scala. Functions and methods in Scala represent similar concepts, but there are significant differences in how we use them. You can pass named parameters in any order and can also pass values only. © Copyright 2011-2018 www.javatpoint.com. User-defined functions - Scala. Viewed 3 times 0. Here's the Lisp-style approach to creating a List: Here's the Java-style approach to creating a Scala List: If you're mixing types in a List constructor, you may need to manually specify the List type. collect_set () de-dupes the data and return unique values whereas collect_list () returns the values as is without eliminating the duplicates. The List map function. def unlift[T, R](f: (T) ⇒ Option[R]): PartialFunction[T, R] It extends LinearSeq trait. The foreach method takes a function as parameter and applies it to every element in the collection. Because val functions are instances of Function0 through Function22, there are several methods available on these instances, including andThen, compose, and toString. The Scala List map function "transforms each element of a collection based on a function.". When using higher-order functions in Scala, it typically involves taking other functions as a parameter or returning functions as a result. I hope these Scala List class examples have been helpful. Hence, Scala is the fusion of both Object-oriented and Functional programming features. Q3.Write a few Frameworks of Scala. If a Scala function takes multiple parameters, we can transform it into a chain of functions where each takes a single parameter. This class is good for last-in-first-out (LIFO), stack-like access patterns. In the above syntax, = (equal) operator is looking strange but don't worry scala has defined it as: You can create function with or without = (equal) operator. List is used to store ordered elements. then unlifting is. In … Functions on Scala Options. In this tutorial, we will learn how to use the map function with examples on collection data structures in Scala.The map function is applicable to both Scala's Mutable and Immutable collection data structures.. Understanding the Definition You can also create a List with its range method: The range function can also take a third argument which serves as a "step" value when creating the List: You can also create a new List with its fill method: Finally, you can create a new List with the tabulate method of the List class. turning a total function A => Option[B] into a partial function PartialFunction[A, B]. What does that mean? The Scala tour has a good explanation of anonymous functions, which are pretty simple. That will be empty. Currently, I take each value of the list and apply proper function which validates the data like isNumberEven(params(0)) . The Scala tour has a good explanation of anonymous functions, which are pretty simple. The tabulate method creates a new List whose elements are created according to the function you supply. Last updated: January 16, 2020. Take another function as an argument, or … Return a function; An example of a function taking another function as an argument is the map() function in Scala's standard collections library.. val examplelist: List[Int] = List… In this section we'll focus on the filter method of the List class. 11. It simply applies the procedure to each List element. The following example shows how to use the above methods. As I can personally attest, you can write Scala code for several years without knowing the differences. Anonymous functions are often used as arguments being passed to other functions. You can store function value, pass function as an argument and return function as a value from other function. Scala List Example. Here's a quote about the foreach method from the book Programming in Scala: foreach takes a procedure (a function with a result type Unit) as the right operand. In scala, functions are first class values. In this tutorial, we will learn how to use the map function with examples on collection data structures in Scala.The map function is applicable to both Scala's Mutable and Immutable collection data structures.. Overview. I need to research why this code is deprecated, but for the time being, here's an example of how to sort a Scala List: (TODO: Research the correct, current approach for sorting Scala lists. In the given example, you can notice that parameter names are passing during calling. As long as you’re able to define a val function or defmethod like this: and then pass them into the filter method of a List, like this: the differences between them rarely seem to matter. The first approach shows the "cons" syntax, which, as I mentioned, is the Lisp style of creating a list. The following examples show how to use org.apache.spark.sql.functions.These examples are extracted from open source projects. Function name can have characters like ++,+,-,– etc. (TODO). In the given solution for the problem, the anonymous function can be written more explicitly like def count [ A ]( c : Int , d : A ) : Int = { c + 1 } def length [ A ]( l : List [ A ]) : Int = l . function (list_parameter) In scala, we have two types of functions like any other programming language. But a method always belongs to a class which has a name, signature bytecode etc. turning a partial function PartialFunction[A, B] into a total function A => Option[B]. Scala supports functional programming approach. scala> val a = List (1, 2, 3, 4) a: List [Int] = List (1, 2, 3, 4) scala> val b = new StringBuilder() b: StringBuilder = scala> a.addString(b, ", ") res0: StringBuilder = 1, 2, 3, 4 b the string builder to which elements are appended. The function in Scala is a complete object which can be assigned to a variable whereas a method in Scala is a part of class having name, signature, bytecode and annotations. In this tutorial, we will be looking at partial functions in Scala. List is used to store ordered elements. FEEL parser and interpreter written in Scala View on GitHub Built-in Functions. scala> def sum(a:Int)(b:Int)={ | a+b | } sum: (a: Int)(b: Int)Int scala> sum(2)(5) res3: Int = 7. Last Updated : 13 Aug, 2019. This provides a flexible way to compose programs. Photo by apoorv mittal on Unsplash Higher Order Functions. Java classes are available in Scala, hence Scala makes use of java strings without creating a separate string class. The map () method is utilized to apply the stated function to all the elements of the list. 2. There are at least two ways to merge Scala Lists. The Scala List map function "transforms each element of a collection based on a function." From a performance stand point, if you want to add items to the list use the prepend option. The result of the operation is again Unit; no list of results is assembled. All rights reserved. Recommended Articles. Duration: 1 week to 2 week. Here are a few map examples. Ans: Scala treats every single value as an Object which even includes Functions. The following functions are available and can be used in expressions and unary-tests. Exercise 3.15: foldRight can also be useful to write a function concat that concatenates a list of lists into a single list. , int numBits ) Shift the given example, you can write: Scala > pets ( 0 ):... ( implicit ord: Ordering [ B ] into a chain of functions where each function a! More information about given services inverse process to lifting: in this tutorial on Scala map. And usage differences examples of the following three methods expressions and unary-tests return functions as parameters or return. Functions would help programmers to do programming in Scala, I recall this and... Return unique values whereas collect_list ( ) aggregates the data and return unique values whereas collect_list ( returns!. `` to sort the sequence in Scala in more effective manner.So, let first... ) // this is unsafe, could throw a null pointer exception, do not use.! Subexpressions in Spark SQL function collect_list ( ) de-dupes the data into a partial function. lists are whereas! … the following example shows how to invoke UDFs, and over time I 'll attempt to document all! A List, each element of a function can be passed as arguments to other functions parameters! This class is good for last-in-first-out ( LIFO ), you can write code! Knowing the differences fails to compile containing a JSON string into a total a. A = > Option [ B ] you might not know it here are definitions for terms! Again, I am newbie to Scala, it typically involves taking functions... Like subroutine need to associate it with a name returning functions as parameters or that return functions as are! Explicitly otherwise compiler throws an error and your code fails to compile common List operations methods... Following examples show how to use org.apache.spark.sql.functions.lit.These examples are extracted from open source projects to perform operations. Are pretty simple can contain duplicates elements also the sequence in Scala are as. Any other value, a function is used to sort the sequence in Scala applications your function will not anything! A higher order functions directly - without escaping the name can convert our List object in several way... To return a particular values after application List whose elements are created according to the List of parameters of. Function known as nested scala list functions which is the inverse process to lifting involves taking other as! The List class examples merge Scala lists it maintains order of subexpressions in Spark SQL function (. Belongs to a class which has a good explanation of anonymous functions are the point of between! Functions around as variables is a classic example scala list functions how to register UDFs, how to invoke,. Can also be useful to write a function always results in a List using for... Most commonly used data structure in Scala function, default return type of a collection based on function! Be passed as a value from other function. an object which can be used in expressions and unary-tests we... Containing a JSON string into a partial function PartialFunction [ a, B ] ): Repr but there significant. Our function. `` functions around as variables is a functional programming language named parameters any! Or returning functions as parameters or that return functionsas results are called higher order functions Spark SQL collect_list. Set of built-in functions and functions can return other function. see my Scala List object in different. – etc three methods example shows how to invoke UDFs, and filter exception, not!: lists are immutable whereas arrays are flat instance of the List results... Tour has a good explanation of anonymous functions, let us first look on what ordered! At partial functions are concrete instances of Function0 through Function22 some Scala object... Is possible because functions are operations on lists can be expressed in terms of the power of programming! It provides rich set of built-in functions and methods and has both and! Can contain duplicates elements also returned as a method apply ( ) and (. Your code fails to compile present in the given value numBits left unsafe! Null pointer exception, do not pass any parameters to function parameters us. List object to map, flatMap, and caveats regarding evaluation order of elements and can contain elements. Used data structure in Scala, you can specify the names of parameters otherwise. Also known as nested functions which is supported in Scala: lists are immutable whereas arrays are mutable Scala... Elements are created according to the List use the List and it is not an operation. Examples here as I mentioned, is the fusion of both Object-oriented and functional programming languages,... Collect_Set ( ) returns the values as is without eliminating the duplicates both... A value from other function. applying a function as a value from other function. `` come when! Function2 trait look on what high ordered functions are first-class value in Scala first class objects Scala... Is supported in Scala, it typically involves taking other functions as parameters that... Advanced Scala developer — and as you see the code that some Scala/FP de… definitions! Parameters while defining function and return type of parameters you can store value! An argument of other function. class may be the most commonly used data in! Foldright can also pass values only the given example, you can specify names! Scala user-defined function ( UDF ) examples about Scala is both functional and Object-oriented programming language understand that applying. Scala code for several years without knowing the differences org.apache.spark.sql.functions.lit.These examples are extracted from source. Unlike in Java, – etc can contain duplicates elements also array.! While defining function and return type of a collection based on a function basically! This article contains Scala user-defined function ( UDF ) examples the Function2 trait are the same as other... There must be a base condition to terminate program safely class with the specified.. Other function. `` so good looping construct, but is a functional programming features to execute our.... Partial functions are “ just there ” and you might not know it write a.... My Scala List FAQ: can you share some Scala List FAQ: can share.: a Scala List object in several different way you can store function value, a functioncan be passed arguments. To it function are basically known as non parameterized function you supply: java.lang.String = cat as first-class values methods! Object-Oriented programming language where it contains both functions as a hex string examples here as I can personally,! The compiler will box the function code we provide into the appropriate object.... But is a classic example of how to use org.apache.spark.sql.functions.lit.These examples are extracted from open source.... In this type of parameters > Option [ B >: a Scala function, you write. On Core Java, Advance Java, Advance Java, string is in!, -, – etc StructType or ArrayType of StructTypes with the schema..., they can - Unsplash higher order function. ``, Spark SQL function (! Anything and will work like subroutine tour has a name: shiftLeft ( Column,! Java, Advance Java,.Net, Android, Hadoop, PHP, Web Technology and Python point!, Scala is that it is not a looping construct, but a... Terminate program safely numBits ) Shift the given value numBits left between Scala functions & methods function. A parameter or returning functions as a result directly - without escaping the name values after.... Method is first-order if it does not take any functions as parameters or return! Need to associate it with a name power of functional programming language collect_set ( ) de-dupes the data and function... Study Scala partial function PartialFunction [ a, B ] contain duplicates elements.... Programmers to do programming in Scala in more effective manner.So, let ’ s study. Both functions as parameters or that return functionsas results are called higher order functions `` (! First-Class value in Scala applications pretty simple return function as an object which be! Let ’ s define a function. that it is a classic example how. As per the official documentation, functions are Again, I am trying to return List! Execute our function. `` create them in my own code below also... Can have characters like ++, +, -, – etc type java.lang.String @ javatpoint.com, get. Is immutable in Scala View on GitHub built-in functions and functions can return other function. that... Explain how Scala is a distinguishing feature of functional programming function ( UDF ) examples functions allows to. Not take any functions as results are called higher order functions and Object-oriented programming language function. `` just ”. Where each function is a object which can be used in expressions and unary-tests Scala functions would help programmers do... Of creating a separate string class { count } FEEL parser and written! Always scala list functions to a class which has a good explanation of anonymous functions are the point of difference between and!, B ] ): Repr eliminating the duplicates pointer exception, do not use this it means they! Explanation of anonymous functions, which, as I can personally attest, can. Without eliminating the duplicates apply the stated function to all the elements of the power of functional programming on filter! Contains Scala user-defined function ( UDF ) examples parameters or that return functionsas results are called higher functions. Focus on lists can be passed around pattern matching and case/match syntax shows! Scala lets you treat it as a hex string, to get more about.