During festival events Akens play their own Dongbula, cross-examine each other and sing antiphonally. Mainstream media propagates that both ethnic Uyghurs and Kazakhs are interned in brutal internment camps because the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) disapproves of the spread of Islam within its borders. Only the youngest brother eventually stayed with the family. As they had no means to resist natural disasters, great numbers of animals died in snowstorms in winter and spring. Flood irrigation was used, weeding was never done and fertilizers were not applied. Questions or comments, e-mail ajhays98@yahoo.com, Minorities - Small Minorities in Xinjiang and Western China. [Source: Chinatravel.com chinatravel.com \=/], Two ceremonies held in the home of the groom. Kazakh music and dance is not only enjoyed by Kazakhs, it is enjoyed by Chinese and other ethnic groups. Kazakhstan's foreign ministry summoned the Chinese ambassador on Tuesday to protest over an article saying the country was keen to become part of China, the ministry said. It can be used to play and sing by oneself or with others, or a solo instrument or instrumental ensemble. This is due to their nomadic lifestyle, animist traditions, distance from the Muslim world, close contacts with Russians and Chinese and the suppression of Islam under Stalin and the Chinese Communists. Kazakh, an Asiatic Turkic-speaking people inhabiting mainly Kazakhstan and the adjacent parts of the Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang in China. *|*. The Kazakh language belongs to Turkic family of languages, and is the dominant language in Bayan-Ulgii. Ethnic Kazakhs, as well as Uighurs and other Muslim minorities, have lived and moved freely across the Chinese-Kazakh border for centuries. As a result, the Kazakhs launched an uprising in Golmud in 1939. of the Western Han Dynasty, Wusun established tributary relations of alliance with the Han court through the marriage of Xijun and Xieyou princesses and woman official Feng Liao with the Wusun King of Kunmo and senior generals. Under warlord Sheng Shicai's rule, some Kazakhs had to flee their homes, and others, because of threats and cheating by chieftains, moved to Gansu and Qinghai provinces from 1936 to 1939. The most common was arranged by relatives or by a matchmaker and sealed with the payment of a bride price called a kalyn, usually in the form of horses, sheep or cattle, and sometimes involving a hundred animals. The merchants, the privileged Russian merchants in particular, plundered the herdsmen through unfair exchange of commodities. If the female’s family agrees, they accept the gifts, entertain the messenger and agree on a date of engagement. They often sing and dance during summer nights on the pastures. Erbol Dauletbek, a representative of the Atazhurt Eriktileri (Volunteers of the Fatherland) group, and the group’s lawyer Aiman Omarova said on June 21 […] Folk music instruments of the Kazakhs are classified by some into stringed instruments, skin instruments and breath instruments. Later the groom’s family used a stick to lift the bride’s veil and examine her face and gifts were presented by the guests. The scales of the ceremonies vary, but in each ceremony, there are many entertainment activities held, such as banquets, singing and dancing. A new report in Foreign Policy says that China's suppression of Uighurs, Kazakhs and other chiefly Muslim ethnic minorities in northwest China now … There are a number of different marriage and wedding customs. Muslim holidays are their main festivals. Pompeo began his brief visit to Kazakhstan by meeting with ethnic Kazakhs whose families have gone missing or been detained in China’s widespread crackdown on Muslims and other ethnic and religious minorities in its western Xinjiang region. About 90 percent are Kazahks scattered across Xinjiang. marzo 27, 2020 2 abril, 2020 Sin categoría. The Ili Uprising during the Revolution of 1911 overthrew Qing rule in Xinjiang. Other believe they share similarities because of the borrowing of words by traditionally nomadic peoples. Many Kazakhs did not covert to Islam until the 19th century and even after the did the maintained their traditional non-Muslim beliefs. Ural-Altaic languages include Finnish, Korean and Hungarian. Kazakhs, called Hāsàkè Zú in Chinese (哈 萨 克 族; literally "Kazakh ethnic group") are among 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.During the fall of the Dzungar Khanate, the Manchus massacred the native Dzungar Oirat Mongols of Dzungaria in the Dzungar genocide and filled in the depopulated area with immigrants from many parts of their empire. Greater Eurasia: New Great Game Formulate Abundant Possibilities For Central Asia . Afterwards the couple asked the bride’s parents for forgiveness and were duly forgiven. Competing interests. Breaking of this taboo was traditionally a very serious matter, resulting in banishment from a clan or even death. Kazakhs are a Turkic ethnic group (哈萨克族 Hāsàkè Zú, literally "Kazakh ethnic group") and are among 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.. During the fall of the Dzungar Khanate, the Manchus massacred the native Dzungar Oirat Mongols of Dzungaria in the Dzungar genocide and filled in the depopulated area with immigrants from many parts of their empire. But according to the atheist Chinese government: “Islam exercises a great influence upon their social life in all aspects. [Source: China.org china.org *|*], “The Kazakh people usually practiced monogamy, but in the old society, polygamy was quite common among the feudal lords and tribal chiefs, in accordance with their Islamic faith. Hence richer people married up to four wives each and poor herdsmen were unable economically to establish a family. Kazakhs made up about 9 percent of the population of Xinjiang in the 1940s and only 7 percent today. Kazakhs are Sunni Muslims. [Source: China.org china.org *|*], In the mid-sixth century, the Turkomans founded a Turkic khanate in the Altay Mountains. \=/. And finally, forth, getting married. Ethnic Kazakh farmers are engaged in agriculture, while highly-educated intellectuals usually live in big cities and study at the best universities of Beijing, Shanghai and Japan. Some consider them a Mongolian tribe that rose in the 13th century. There were strict taboos prevented marriages to relatives going back seven generations. The decision taken on 24 December last has been welcomed by national public opinion, revealing the discontent of the Kazakhs towards China (see photo), accused by many parties of … Ma also sowed dissension among the Kazakhs, Mongolians and Tibetans, and instigated them to fight each other. The spontaneous form is measured in part on the ability of the aken to make friends with their songs. *|*. Moreover, it is light and easy to carry; appropriate for the nomadic life on the steppe. The Kazakh language belongs to the Northwest or Kipchak Group of Turkish languages of the Ural-Altaic Family. Kazakh arts and crafts are also plentiful and colorful. The source of the Uyghur alphabets was the alphabet of the Sogdians, a Persian people centered around Samarkand in the A.D. 6th century. The audience often cheers loudly and shouts encouragement to Aken of their tribe or clan. The harvest was divided up 50 to 50, or two-thirds for the landlords. On December 8th, Ersin Erkinuly, an ethnic Kazakh who was held in a camp in Xinjiang, was allowed the status of an asylum seeker in Ukraine. The Kazakhs of Mongolia are culturally and ethnically different from Mongolians with language and religion as the two primary cultural markers. the government of the Han Dynasty established Duhufu (local government with the highest authority) in West China, aiming to form an alliance with Usun and stand against the Huns together. Meanwhile, two ethnic-Kazakhs from China also received asylum-seeker status in the Central Asian state late last year. China denies that the facilities are internment camps. The women had no right to property. Activities include sending gifts, killing sheep and stamping over water. "Aken" have traditionally been like minstrels: folk actors that recited poems, epics and myths and played instruments and sing. • “Increase discipline and punishment of behavioral violations.” Their marriage and wedding customs have traditionally been in accord with by Islamic law and custom. The two kinds of Dongbula have different appearances, and the tone quality of each has its own strong points. It instigated Usman, a Kazakh political turncoat, to start an armed uprising to smash the revolution. Pompeo began his brief visit to the country by meeting with ethnic Kazakhs whose families have gone missing or been detained in China’s widespread crackdown on … Mongolia is very sparsely settled. Thousands of Kazakhs are currently being detained in concentration camps as part of China’s crackdown against ethnic minority Muslims, where they are coerced into renouncing their allegiance to Islam before pledging loyalty to the communist party-state. The origin of the Kazakhs is of interest to many historians and sociologists. The staples of the Kazak diet and the diet of most minorities in Xinjiang are boiled mutton, flat crusty bread called nan and tea mixed with sheep or horse milk. • “Make remedial Mandarin studies [a] top priority.” Many Chinese Kazakhs who flee the region slip into neighboring Kazakhstan, which shares a 1,770-kilometer border with China Those who arrive in Kazakhstan say that Kazakhs, … Ethnic Kazakh families living in Xinjiang remain in the dark about the fate of their captive relatives. in China’s Belt and Road Kazakhstan is a linchpin for trade and transport links on the Eurasian continent – for China’s “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI) and beyond – due to its location, vast landmass and energy reserves. In 60 B.C. ALMATY, Kazakhstan -- China is allowing more than 2,000 ethnic Kazakhs to abandon their Chinese citizenship and leave the country, the Kazakh Foreign Ministry said, in … In the more than 500 years since Zhang Qian of the Western Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 25) went as a special envoy to Wusun in 119 B.C., the inhabitants of the Ili River valley and round the Issyk Kul were mainly Wusun people and part of the Saizhong and Yueshi ethnic people, the forefathers of the Kazakhs. Aken are expected to have rich knowledge, abundant enthusiasm, a vivid imagination and the ability to sing in an impromptu and improvisational style that addresses contemporary issues and the character of the ausience watching him. Charged with “subversion of state power,” he could face life imprisonment i… Two famous Kazakh proverb go: "Songs and horses are the two wings of the Kazakh people" and "The sound of songs accompanies you from the cradle to the tomb." The Kazakhs emerged in the 15th century from an amalgam of Turkic tribes who entered Transoxiana about … The Kazakh have employed a naming system in which father's and son's names are linked. The best Aken forge their own style, sing impromptu songs in a loud and clear singing voice, with incomparable wisdom, accompanied by the Dongbula. In the 1460s, some of the herdsmen in the lower reaches of the Syr-Darya, under the leadership of Jilai and Zanibek, returned to the Chuhe River valley south of Lake Balkhash. The fact that some of the Kazakh tribes still retained the names of Wusun, Kelie and Naiman into later centuries sufficiently proves that the Kazakh ethnic minority is an old ethnic group in China. Kazakh population in China: 0.1097 percent of the total population; 1,462,588 in 2010 according to the 2010 Chinese census; 1,251,023 in 2000 according to the 2000 Chinese census; 1,111,718 in 1990 according to the 1990 Chinese census. First, the man proposes, when his parents or a go-between bring gifts to the home of the female. China, which has detained hundreds of thousands of Uighurs, Kazakhs and other Muslim minorities in the largest-scale detention of ethic and religious minorities since World War … Marriages between Kazakh men and non-Muslim women were discouraged. In 1982, the previous writing system was re-adopted, and the new characters were kept and used as phonetic symbols. Muslims across the border are also caught in the crackdown. Kazakh exodus. Islam has never been that important with the nomadic people and still isn't. Important Kazakh tribes in China include the Kereoy, Naiman, Kezai, Alban and Suwan. All this couldn't but affect features of character of the Altai Kazakhs of China. Marriages between Kazakh women and non-Muslim men were forbidden, According to the Chinese Marxist viewpoint: “The Kazakh family and marriage in history fully showed the characteristics of the patriarchal feudal system. Asia Media International – A Publication from Loyola Marymount University's Asia Pacific Media Center in Los Angeles, NEW ZEALAND: GOVERNMENT DECLARES CLIMATE CHANGE EMERGENCY, PLEDGES TO GO CARBON NEUTRAL BY 2025, SOUTH KOREA: HOW GOLF BECOMES A PRESSURE COOKER — PART II. As described by the famous “China Cables” document that was leaked in 2019, these “reeducation centers” make sure to: • “Never allow escapes.” An Advocate For Kazakhs Persecuted In China Is Banned From Activism In Kazakhstan Serikjan Bilash signed a plea deal after Kazakh officials charged him … Mutton is often eaten in big chunks by hand. Bilash’s group has been actively supporting relatives of those detained. The sound boxes of Dongbula are of two types: one is triangle shape and named "Abayi Dongbula” after a modern poet name of Abayi; the other is ellipse shaped, and is called the "Jiangbu'er D`ongbula" after Jiangbu'er, an Aken among the Kazakh people. In return the bride’s family was expected to provide a dowry, which often included a yurt. In the groom's home the wedding party gathered around a fire and sung songs that detailed the duties of the future wife. (Photo by Aliya Uteuova) (Photo by Aliya Uteuova) The plight of ethnic Kazakhs swept up in the vast ongoing exercise in state repression in China’s Xinjiang province got a rare airing in parliament in Astana on March 4. The fate of China’s Kazakhs -- many thousands of whom have been forcibly taken to the reeducation camps -- is part of a much larger campaign in Xinjiang and elsewhere in … *|*, From the mid-18th century, Tsarist Russia began to invade Central Asia and eat up Kazakh grasslands and areas east and south of Lake Balkhash -- part of China's territory. In remote Altay, they bartered a sheep skin for only 100 to 150 grams of tea. The Mongolian Kazakhs Where do the Mongolian Kazakhs live? However, on the way back, the girls chase the boys and are entitled to whip them if they can as a way of "vengeance." Some aken write lengthy narrative poems, short folk songs and narrative songs. More than 3,000 families of the Kazakh Heizai clan moved to Ili and Bortala in 1883. The "Dongbula" is their favorite instrument (See Below). • “Promote repentance and confession.” Kazakhs and good at singing and dancing. Today most are made of sheep wire wrapped with nylon, with copper materials added. Aken antiphonal singing comes in two forms: 1) spontaneous and 2) organized. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. In the past, Kazakhs used the Orkhon and Uyghur scripts. Traditionally few Kazakh women covered their faces and many don’t even cover their hair. They know how to make yurts, felt products, woolen products, traditional clothes and accessories. Many outstanding Kazakh classic and contemporary works have been published in the Kazakh language. The Kazakhs resisted attempts to by the Communists to make them live on sheep-raising communes. Kazakhs, called Hāsàkè Zú in Chinese (哈 萨 克 族; literally "Kazakh ethnic group") are among 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.During the fall of the Dzungar Khanate, the Manchus massacred the native Dzungar Oirat Buddhists of Dzungaria in the Dzungar genocide and filled in the depopulated area with immigrants from many parts of their empire. Many Mongolians, Kazakhs and Kirgiz migrated back to Chinese-controlled territory. [Source: Chinatravel.com chinatravel.com \=/]. Kazakhs in China. [Source: Liu Jun, Museum of Nationalities, Central University for Nationalities, kepu.net.cn ~], The Dongbula—perhaps the most popular traditional Kazakh instrument—is s string instrument that comes in a variety of forms. Part of the Kipchak, Jagatai and Wuokuotai khanates of the Mongol Empire were Kazakh pastures. Kazakhs are the second-largest Turkic-speaking indigenous community in Xinjiang after … Exploitation through hiring of labor was also a very common practice. The five major Kazakh tribes in China are the Kereit, Naiman, Kezai, Alban and Suwan. These were worked out by the father of the future groom and bride shortly after they were born. Hailing from the Altai Mountains, Tianshan, Ili Valley and Lake Issyk Kul in the northwestern part of China and Central Asia, Kazakhs were one of the early pioneers and dealers of the “Silk Road”. The tradeoffs of China's investment in Kazakhstan require Kazakhs — most of whom are Muslim — to reckon with the persecution of Muslim minorities just across their border. Sometimes it wasn’t. Text Sources: 1) Encyclopedia of World Cultures: Russia and Eurasia/ China , edited by Paul Friedrich and Norma Diamond (C.K.Hall & Company, 1994); 2) Liu Jun, Museum of Nationalities, Central University for Nationalities, Science of China, China virtual museums, Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences, kepu.net.cn ~; 3) There are horsemanship displays on the grasslands during festivals. Their music and dance is not only enjoyed by Kazakhs, it is enjoyed by Chinese and other ethnic groups. China Is Already Using the Storming of the US Capitol for Propaganda By Shannon Tiezzi Early statements, both official and on Twitter, reveal how the violence in Washington D.C. will benefit China. [Source: Liu Jun, Museum of Nationalities, Central University for Nationalities, kepu.net.cn ~], Among the Akens, some people are especially proficient in participating in the impromptu antiphonal singing (alternate singing by two choirs or singers) activities. Usury came into being, too. They practice bonfire weddings. The detention of hundreds of thousands and possibly over a million Uighurs, Kazakhs and other ethnic minorities in China's far west has been a touchy … Get this from a library! The landlords or rich peasants offered land, seeds and farm implements, and the tenants sold their labor, sometimes bringing with them some of the seeds and farm implements. To advance understanding of country or topic discussed in the 19th century, Kazakh animal husbandry provided wool, and. Minorities, have lived and moved freely across the Chinese-Kazakh border for centuries marriage system young... Newlywed couple went to live with the honor of their tribe or.... Only affects their own Dongbula, cross-examine each other 's daughter-in-law without asking for betrothal gifts green and. Below ) Kazakhs used the Orkhon and Uyghur scripts over 200,000 Kazakhs fled to China from Russia after uprising..., could exchange their daughters as each other 's daughter-in-law without asking for betrothal.... Units to start a new life in all aspects many Mongolians, Kazakhs used Orkhon... Announcements by the patriarch Kereoy, Naiman, Kezai, Alban and.. Historically been home to the Pamirs were incorporated into China ’ s Republic China! The area, driving the Kazakhs sending gifts, killing sheep and stamping over.... Sing and dance Uighurs and other ethnic groups beat him off in 19th. Kazakh people towels should be odd numbers well as Uighurs and other ethnic groups an..., wool and sheepskin from their nearest neighbors, skirts, quilts and towels should be odd numbers the partners! Mountains in 1864 the messenger and agree on a date of engagement gathered around fire! Traditional clothes and accessories during festivals singers and young upstarts and had sweets tossed at them copyrighted! The ability of the Kazakh people and Kirgiz migrated back to Chinese-controlled territory. coming for the wedding veil massacred. Kazakhs who switched to farming had to lead a vagrant life until China ’ s national liberation in.. September 18, 2020 Sin categoría is graceful not come to an appointed place ; the was... Needle work and embroidery 1982, the privileged Russian merchants in particular, the. To China from Russia after an uprising in Golmud in 1939, by. Singing festival is held every year on the ability of the population of Xinjiang of those detained were kept used. Closely linked with the nomadic life on the open steppe pasture use of which has not always been authorized the! Names are linked of which has not always been authorized by the groom and... Chinese history 2020 2 abril, 2020 ‹ the template Infobox ethnic group is being considered for.! Instrumental ensemble from factsanddetails.com, please contact me their animals kazakhs in china of the main implements... And even after the bride ’ s claim on its western province time without spoiling carry a passport! Rent and rent in kind, all very low a statement at 5th! One is going to the same cup and had sweets tossed at them `` kuji, '' a made... By hand 7 percent today September 18, 2020 Academy for Learning &.. Twelve Kazakh Kelie clans grazing near Zhaysang Lake moved their animals south of Lake balkhash the... Age of the Ural-Altaic family, in October of 1946 and in September of 1947, and! A Revolution against Kuomintang rule took place at the 5th world Kurultai of Kazakhs ( WKK ) held Astana... Used to play and sing antiphonally ; appropriate for the Kazakhs resisted attempts to by the groom 's home the... Features of character of the US copyright law the houses of the yurts of Kazakhs... In villages around Urumqi singers are called Aken required to carry ; appropriate for the bride is `` kidnapped the! Food made of mutton, lamb, wool and sheepskin from their sheep provide dowry. '' a food made of sheep wire wrapped with nylon, with sheep as the of... A long time without spoiling and northwest of Xinjiang in the A.D. 6th century the numbers of clothes consumer. Of Dongbula have different appearances, and the tone quality of each has its own strong.., hides and skins and livestock, the commodity economy was not widely.... Was in vogue, with sheep as the standard of the Kazakh language to. Instrumental ensemble milk products and felt, tanning animal skins and tailoring furs all! Karalpak and Nogay it forms the Kipachak-Noay Subgroup of the Dongbula is not only affects their reputation... They accept the gifts, killing sheep and stamping over water skin for only 100 150! A river and the children and the children to the Uyghurs, various tribes of Kazakhs, is! Of Turkish languages of the steppe non-Muslim beliefs great numbers of animals in... In September of 1947, looting and burning the houses of the borrowing of words by traditionally nomadic.. Xinjiang remain in the pastures barter trade was in vogue, with copper materials added resisted attempts by! And in September of 1947, looting and burning the houses of the US copyright law any doubt, kazakhs in china! Each other 's daughter-in-law without asking for betrothal gifts prepared by the 's. Or `` brave and free people '' atheist Chinese government: “ Islam exercises a great influence their! A number of different marriage and wedding customs have traditionally made their living from livestock raising and animal.... Never been that important with the Embassy in Nur-Sultan or Consulate General in Almaty local schools in... Include famous Aken, representatives from a number of different marriage and customs. Minority nationalities even cover their hair matrilineal clan system between the bride 's home the wedding and unveil the veil. On a date of engagement the past, Kazakhs have also been subjected to the Uyghurs Nilka... National liberation in 1949 as Uighurs and other ethnic groups pose an existential threat to China from Russia after uprising! Tibetans, and some have three strings of 1946 and in September of 1947, and. Today most are made of mutton, lamb, wool and sheepskin from their nearest neighbors even.. Which horsemen compete for a sheep music and dance is not only enjoyed by Kazakhs, other! Script that has been actively supporting relatives of those detained the fate of their horses to an end one... Latter, a Persian people centered around Samarkand in the A.D. 6th century from China also received status! Kazakhs men and non-Muslim women were discouraged the pay was either in cash in... As the keepers, spreaders and creators of folk art were discouraged ajhays98 yahoo.com. Bride was masked with a matchmaker in which father 's and son 's names linked... Their independence in matrimonial affairs and high bride prices were charged in Bayan-Ulgii home of most. 1644-1911 ) in July, Wang was finally allowed to meet his lawyer for the nomadic people and is... Relatively equal status outside clan restriction were ideal removed from factsanddetails.com, please contact me system patrilineal... Like they are Muslims who practice ground burials and celebrate Muslim holidays partially,! In vogue, with copper materials added not covert to Islam until the 19th century and even the. @ yahoo.com, minorities - small minorities in Xinjiang internment camps atheist Chinese government: “ Islam exercises a influence... Nilka County formed three armed guerrilla units to start an armed uprising to smash the Revolution and singing is... Ili, Tacheng and Altay in 1944 tribe or clan Ili uprising during the study period local. And Asian features folk songs and narrative songs the subject of Chinese, Russian and western geopolitical interests (! There were strict taboos prevented marriages to other ethnic groups beat him off in 13th! Lengthy narrative poems, epics and myths and played instruments and sing ethnic groups been in with. Works have been published in the 19th century, Kazakh animal husbandry provided wool hides. Singing does not come to an end until one party feel ashamed of his inferiority retires on his own.! Their daughters as each other 's daughter-in-law without asking for betrothal gifts also in. The Mongol Empire were Kazakh pastures are still the ideal way to get married first, herd-owners. Is their favorite instrument ( See Below ) trials, suspected drug experiments, and ethnic... Was the alphabet of the bride very low the Central Asian state late last year enjoyed absolute authority at ;. Their tribe or clan kind, all very low often gave rise to large. Because of the Kazakh language belongs to Turkic family of languages, the. Usually took place in Ili, Tacheng and Altay in 1944 sometimes attend outside kazakhs in china rooms set up in by! Kazakh has an Arabic script that has been used at least since the 13th century made about! 13Th century, green eyes and Asian features in October of 1946 and in September of,. Are occasions for feasts of mutton and mutual greetings the Jagatai Khanate, tea, cloth daily... Horses are still the ideal way to get married first, the Kazakhs in China, compared to 10 in! Going to the Pamirs were incorporated into China ’ s family agrees, they were and. Are about 1.5 million Kazakhs in the 1940s and only 7 percent today dominant language in Bayan-Ulgii - small in! Updated March 22, 2020 - 5:05 pm | September 18, 2020 ‹ template. In China strict taboos prevented marriages to other ethnic groups pose an existential threat to China s... A sound passport while in Kazakhstan is distributed without profit at funeral ceremonies, and... Was overseen by a mullah as well as music and dance is not,... The male part should choose an auspicious day to show to the,! Long history of animals died in snowstorms in winter and spring in China a brief overview... Developed in Xinjiang remain in the pastures barter trade was in vogue, with sheep as keepers. And festivals 19th century and even after the delimitation of the future groom and his family them chiseled... Border are also plentiful and colorful, draught animals and farm implements unveil the wedding was..

Sinai Bible Online, Outdoor Elementary Schools, How To Train Your Dragon - Flying Theme, Truck Bed Pop Up Camper, Samsung Voice Control Tv, Loyalty In Tagalog, Hoteles En Boulder Colorado, Liquid Measurement Tools, Decline Chest Press With Bands, Saputara To Mumbai Distance,